Learn JAVA #7

Java Data Types

As explained in the previous chapter, a variable in Java must be a specified data type:

Example

int myNum = 5;               // Integer (whole number)
float myFloatNum = 5.99f;    // Floating point number
char myLetter = 'D';         // Character
boolean myBool = true;       // Boolean
String myText = "Hello";     // String

Data types are divided into two groups:

  • Primitive data types – includes byteshortintlongfloatdoubleboolean and char
  • Non-primitive data types – such as StringArrays and Classes (you will learn more about these in a later chapter)

Primitive Data Types

A primitive data type specifies the size and type of variable values, and it has no additional methods.

There are eight primitive data types in Java:

Data Type Size Description
byte 1 byte Stores whole numbers from -128 to 127
short 2 bytes Stores whole numbers from -32,768 to 32,767
int 4 bytes Stores whole numbers from -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647
long 8 bytes Stores whole numbers from -9,223,372,036,854,775,808 to 9,223,372,036,854,775,807
float 4 bytes Stores fractional numbers. Sufficient for storing 6 to 7 decimal digits
double 8 bytes Stores fractional numbers. Sufficient for storing 15 decimal digits
boolean 1 bit Stores true or false values
char 2 bytes Stores a single character/letter or ASCII values

Java Numbers

Numbers

Primitive number types are divided into two groups:

Integer types stores whole numbers, positive or negative (such as 123 or -456), without decimals. Valid types are byteshortint and long. Which type you should use, depends on the numeric value.

Floating point types represents numbers with a fractional part, containing one or more decimals. There are two types: float and double.

Even though there are many numeric types in Java, the most used for numbers are int (for whole numbers) and double (for floating point numbers). However, we will describe them all as you continue to read.


Integer Types

Byte

The byte data type can store whole numbers from -128 to 127. This can be used instead of int or other integer types to save memory when you are certain that the value will be within -128 and 127:

Example

byte myNum = 100;
System.out.println(myNum);

Short

The short data type can store whole numbers from -32768 to 32767:

Example

short myNum = 5000;
System.out.println(myNum);

Int

The int data type can store whole numbers from -2147483648 to 2147483647. In general, and in our tutorial, the int data type is the preferred data type when we create variables with a numeric value.

Example

int myNum = 100000;
System.out.println(myNum);

Long

The long data type can store whole numbers from -9223372036854775808 to 9223372036854775807. This is used when int is not large enough to store the value. Note that you should end the value with an “L”:

Example

long myNum = 15000000000L;
System.out.println(myNum);

Floating Point Types

You should use a floating point type whenever you need a number with a decimal, such as 9.99 or 3.14515.

The float and double data types can store fractional numbers. Note that you should end the value with an “f” for floats and “d” for doubles:

Float Example

float myNum = 5.75f;
System.out.println(myNum);

Double Example

double myNum = 19.99d;
System.out.println(myNum);

Use float or double?

The precision of a floating point value indicates how many digits the value can have after the decimal point. The precision of float is only six or seven decimal digits, while double variables have a precision of about 15 digits. Therefore it is safer to use double for most calculations.

Scientific Numbers

A floating point number can also be a scientific number with an “e” to indicate the power of 10:

Example

float f1 = 35e3f;
double d1 = 12E4d;
System.out.println(f1);
System.out.println(d1);

Java Boolean Data Types

Boolean Types

Very often in programming, you will need a data type that can only have one of two values, like:

  • YES / NO
  • ON / OFF
  • TRUE / FALSE

For this, Java has a boolean data type, which can only take the values true or false:

Example

boolean isJavaFun = true;
boolean isFishTasty = false;
System.out.println(isJavaFun);     // Outputs true
System.out.println(isFishTasty);   // Outputs false

Java Characters

Characters

The char data type is used to store a single character. The character must be surrounded by single quotes, like ‘A’ or ‘c’:

Example

char myGrade = 'B';
System.out.println(myGrade);

Alternatively, if you are familiar with ASCII values, you can use those to display certain characters:

Example

char myVar1 = 65, myVar2 = 66, myVar3 = 67;
System.out.println(myVar1);
System.out.println(myVar2);
System.out.println(myVar3);

Strings

The String data type is used to store a sequence of characters (text). String values must be surrounded by double quotes:

Example

String greeting = "Hello World";
System.out.println(greeting);

Java Non-Primitive Data Types

Non-Primitive Data Types

Non-primitive data types are called reference types because they refer to objects.

The main difference between primitive and non-primitive data types are:

  • Primitive types are predefined (already defined) in Java. Non-primitive types are created by the programmer and is not defined by Java (except for String).
  • Non-primitive types can be used to call methods to perform certain operations, while primitive types cannot.
  • A primitive type has always a value, while non-primitive types can be null.
  • A primitive type starts with a lowercase letter, while non-primitive types starts with an uppercase letter.
  • The size of a primitive type depends on the data type, while non-primitive types have all the same size.

45 thoughts on “Learn JAVA #7

  1. Hello bro!More info!..
    дом престарелых в Ростове-на-Дону
    https://pansionat-rnd.ru/
    “Дом престарелых” – это общепринятое название для социального учреждения, которое оказывает услуги по социальной защите и помощи престарелым людям. Если вы ищете информацию о конкретном доме престарелых в Ростове-на-Дону, можете уточнить местоположение и другую информацию.
    пансионат для пожилых

    http://maps.google.se/url?q=https://pansionat-rnd.ru/ http://www.google.co.id/url?q=https://pansionat-rnd.ru/ http://images.google.bg/url?q=https://pansionat-rnd.ru/ http://images.google.com.kw/url?q=https://pansionat-rnd.ru/ http://cse.google.rs/url?q=https://pansionat-rnd.ru/

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *