Learn JS #6

JavaScript Arithmetic


JavaScript Arithmetic Operators

Arithmetic operators perform arithmetic on numbers (literals or variables).

Operator Description
+ Addition
Subtraction
* Multiplication
** Exponentiation
/ Division
% Modulus (Remainder)
++ Increment
Decrement

Arithmetic Operations

A typical arithmetic operation operates on two numbers.

The two numbers can be literals:

Example

let x = 100 + 50;

or variables:

Example

let x = a + b;

or expressions:

Example

let x = (100 + 50) * a;

Operators and Operands

The numbers (in an arithmetic operation) are called operands.

The operation (to be performed between the two operands) is defined by an operator.

Operand Operator Operand
100 + 50

Adding

The addition operator (+) adds numbers:

Example

let x = 5;
let y = 2;
let z = x + y;

Subtracting

The subtraction operator (-) subtracts numbers.

Example

let x = 5;
let y = 2;
let z = x - y;

Multiplying

The multiplication operator (*) multiplies numbers.

Example

let x = 5;
let y = 2;
let z = x * y;

Dividing

The division operator (/) divides numbers.

Example

let x = 5;
let y = 2;
let z = x / y;

Remainder

The modulus operator (%) returns the division remainder.

Example

let x = 5;
let y = 2;
let z = x % y;

In arithmetic, the division of two integers produces a quotient and a remainder.

In mathematics, the result of a modulo operation is the remainder of an arithmetic division.


Incrementing

The increment operator (++) increments numbers.

Example

let x = 5;
x++;
let z = x;

Decrementing

The decrement operator (--) decrements numbers.

Example

let x = 5;
x--;
let z = x;

Exponentiation

The exponentiation operator (**) raises the first operand to the power of the second operand.

Example

let x = 5;
let z =x ** 2;          // result is 25

x ** y produces the same result as Math.pow(x,y):
Example
let x = 5;
let z =Math.pow(x,2);   // result is 25

Operator Precedence

Operator precedence describes the order in which operations are performed in an arithmetic expression.

Example

let x = 100 + 50 * 3;

Is the result of example above the same as 150 * 3, or is it the same as 100 + 150?

Is the addition or the multiplication done first?

As in traditional school mathematics, the multiplication is done first.

Multiplication (*) and division (/) have higher precedence than addition (+) and subtraction (-).

And (as in school mathematics) the precedence can be changed by using parentheses:

Example

let x = (100 + 50) * 3;

When using parentheses, the operations inside the parentheses are computed first.

When many operations have the same precedence (like addition and subtraction), they are computed from left to right:

Example

let x = 100 + 50 - 3;

JavaScript Operator Precedence Values

Pale red entries indicates ECMAScript 2015 (ES6) or higher.

Value Operator Description Example
21 ( ) Expression grouping (3 + 4)
20 . Member person.name
20 [] Member person[“name”]
20 () Function call myFunction()
20 new Create new Date()
18 ++ Postfix Increment i++
18 Postfix Decrement i–
17 ++ Prefix Increment ++i
17 Prefix Decrement –i
17 ! Logical not !(x==y)
17 typeof Type typeof x
16 ** Exponentiation (ES2016) 10 ** 2
15 * Multiplication 10 * 5
15 / Division 10 / 5
15 % Division Remainder 10 % 5
14 + Addition 10 + 5
14 Subtraction 10 – 5
13 << Shift left x << 2
13 >> Shift right x >> 2
13 >>> Shift right (unsigned) x >>> 2
12 < Less than x < y
12 <= Less than or equal x <= y
12 > Greater than x > y
12 >= Greater than or equal x >= y
12 in Property in Object “PI” in Math
12 instanceof Instance of Object instanceof Array
11 == Equal x == y
11 === Strict equal x === y
11 != Unequal x != y
11 !== Strict unequal x !== y
10 & Bitwise AND x & y
9 ^ Bitwise XOR x ^ y
8 | Bitwise OR x | y
7 && Logical AND x && y
6 || Logical OR x || y
5 ?? Nullish Coalescing x ?? y
4 ? : Condition ? “Yes” : “No”
3 += Assignment x += y
3 /= Assignment x /= y
3 -= Assignment x -= y
3 *= Assignment x *= y
3 %= Assignment x %= y
3 <<= Assignment x <<= y
3 >>= Assignment x >>= y
3 >>>= Assignment x >>>= y
3 &= Assignment x &= y
3 ^= Assignment x ^= y
3 |= Assignment x |= y
2 yield Pause Function yield x
1 , Comma 5 , 6
Note: Expressions in parentheses are fully computed before the value is used in the rest of the expression.

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